Liquid biopsies, which are blood tests that detect circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), may be able to identify advanced non-small cell lung cancer patients who could benefit from additional drugs during immunotherapy treatment, according to a phase 2 clinical trial. The trial, led by investigators at the Johns Hopkins Kimmel Cancer Center, BC Cancer, and the Canadian Cancer trials Group, found that ctDNA analyses can serve as an early marker of immunotherapy response and may help guide therapy. The results, published in Nature Medicine, suggest that liquid biopsies could be used to determine which patients are benefiting from immunotherapies and may serve as a new endpoint for clinical trials testing these treatments. Liquid biopsies offer a minimally invasive way to track patients’ responses to treatment and could help identify individuals at high risk of disease progression who might benefit from a change in their therapeutic regimen. The trial is ongoing, and the investigators will evaluate the potential clinical benefit of tailoring treatment based on ctDNA responses in the second stage of the trial.